These differences between the two countries may adequately account for the great disparity in theoretic development. The existence of problems calls for solution; solution requires con structive theoretic foundations. That this is the natural order is abundantly shown in finance. Financial difficulties or prob lems have necessarily preceded any considerable determination of the science of finance in modern nations. The new condi tions and new relations involved in machine production, or the great industry (grossbetrieb) bring into relief the interests of classes and make necessary a scientific determination of both productive and distributive forces.